Showing posts with label Education. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Education. Show all posts

Tuesday, 31 August 2021

Nominal vs Ordinal Data - Know The Difference In Detail

Nominal vs Ordinal Data
In Statistics, data measurement scales are of four types namely as nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each data type has its different way of gathering the data, and hence different mathematical and logical operations are applied to them. Different analysis are performed on each data type. So, the researcher needs to understand the data type and the possible applicable analysis on it. In this article, Nominal and Ordinal data types are discussed. The major difference between these types is the “degree difference” from one classification to another.

Data on no degree classification means that the data is nominal. Data with degree classification (in an orderly manner) means that the data is ordinal. The following article shared by experts of PhD dissertation writing services aims to provide detailed insight into the ordinal and nominal data types along with examples. The major and minor differences between nominal and ordinal data will be provided further as well.

Ordinal Data:

The type of data which can be classified and ordered is the ordinal data. Order is naturally taking place among variables, but the difference is unidentified. Ordinal data can only be observed. They cannot be measured and are ordered. They have no purposeful zero and are non-equidistant. There is a “sub-type” of the ordinal data, which consists of only two ordered categories, known as “Dichotomous Data”. Examples of the ordinal data sets include the following;
  • Good (Very Good, Excellent, Outstanding,….).
  • Size (Small, Medium, Large, Extra large,…).
  • Exam Grade (A+, A, B, C,….).
  • Motivation degrees (High, Moderate, Low).
  • Attitude degrees (Favourable, Neutral, Unfavourable).
  • Measuring satisfaction from a scale (0 to 10).
Examples of the Ordinal Scale
Figure 1: Examples of the Ordinal Scale.
Source: (Types of Data Measurement Scale, Ordinal Data).


The data in the above examples have a specific order, but the exact difference is not certain among the ordinal variables. When ordinal data is used in statistical analysis, they are known as ordinal variables. From ordinal variables, conclusions may be drawn whether there exists a difference in the ordinal variables or not. They are frequently found within questionnaires and surveys. A Likert scale is commonly used in the collection of ordinal data. The descriptive statistics are applied to the ordinal variables, including proportions, frequencies, percentages, central point (median or mode), and summary statistics. They can be visualised by pie and bar charts.

Nominal Data:

The type of data which can be categorised or labelled (named), is the nominal data. The word nominal originated from the Latin language, “Namen, meaning name”. The data can be categorised based on names only. Nominal data can only be observed. It cannot be measured or ordered. They have no purposeful zero and are non-equidistant. There is a "sub-type" of the nominal data, which consists of only two labelled categories, known as “Dichotomous Data”. Examples of the nominal data include the following;
  • Nationality (British, Austrian, French, American,….).
  • Gender (Male, Female, Transgender).
  • Music style (Classical, Rock, Jazz, Hip-Hop,….).
  • Religion (Muslim, Jew, Christan, Jew,…).
  • Favourite Weather (Winter, Autumn, Spring, Summer).
  • Favourite Country (Spain, Egypt, Turkey, Germany,…..).
  • Favourite Day of the Week (Monday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday,….).
Figure 2: Examples of the Nominal data.
Source: (Types of data Measurement Scale, Nominal Data).

The data in the above examples can only be labelled and categorised, but it cannot be ordered. When nominal data is used in statistical analysis, they are known as nominal variables. Nominal variables are only observed. No mathematical or logical operations are applied to them. The information inferred from nominal variables is that they are equal or not equal to one another. The information thus retrieved is used to group them. Descriptive statistics are applied to the nominal variables including proportions, frequencies, percentages, and central point (mode). They can be visualised through pie and bar charts.

Differences between Nominal and Ordinal data.

Account

Nominal

Ordinal

Description

 

Variables are differentiated based on their nomenclature.

Order is naturally taking place among variables, but the difference is unidentified.

Sequence

No implied sequences among variables.

For instance, the sequence of the Marital status may be (Single, Married, Divorced, Widowed).

 

Implied sequence but cannot be calculated.

For instance, the order of size is Small, Medium, Large, Extra-Large. But small, the medium is not equal to large, extra-large.

 

Data can be categorised and labelled (named).

Data can be classified and ordered.

Grouping

“= or not =”

“= or not =” and “< or >”

Descriptive Statistics

The central point (Mode).

The central point (Median or Mode).

Degree of values

  • Nominal vaibales cannot be quanitifiable.
  • Only Qualitative values.
  • Variables can be quantifiable.
  • Both Quantitative and Qualitative values but no arithmetic operations are calculated on variables.

  • Age Nominal or Ordinal:

    Age can be both nominal and ordinal, depending upon the nature of the data collection. In case of when the researcher is concerned about gathering the age of the respondents, whether the respondents are young or old, the data gathered by the researcher will be the nominal data for the study. On the other hand, when the researcher is involved in gathering information order-wise of the respondents, the researcher will collect the respondent’s number of the age, position in the age group in the family. Hence, the gathering of the information which is in a specific order (orderly manner), is ordinal data.

    Conclusion:

    It is important for the researcher to understand which information is ordinal or nominal. The identification of the type of data is beneficial as it guides the researcher about its use. Different statistical analysis and mathematical operations are applied to both nominal and ordinal data. Thus identification of the data type assists the researcher in applying suitable operations and analysis to the data gathered. The first step is to understand in detail their respective definitions (nominal and ordinal), differences, and similarities. It is helpful for the researcher in identifying which information is to be carried and to what extent within their studies. So that the researcher would not be confused while applying tests or analysis.

    References:

    My Market Research Methods. 2021. Types of data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. [online] Available at: https://www.mymarketresearchmethods.com/types-of-data-nominal-ordinal-interval-ratio/

    Sunday, 9 May 2021

    Students Need Less Academic Pressure and More Academic Support

    Academic Support
    Our traditional education systems put more academic pressure on students and show less academic support to them. Many research studies have been conducted in this regard that has proven that student performs well when they have academic support as compared to their performance in pressure. Students need to be told that failure is just the part of life that must be considered for learning from our mistakes and for bringing improvement. This article by a coursework writing service will discuss how students' performance becomes better when they have less academic pressure and more academic support.

    Success Obsessions:

    When students’ minds are obsessed with the thought that they only have to succeed and there is no way to failure then their performance is affected by fear. When they have fear of failure they afraid of taking any risk or difficult steps. It limits their creativity and without creativity, the performance is just average. Educators and parents need to make it understandable to the students that actual learning is through difficulties. Students will benefit from instruction that gives them space to battle with trouble. Educators and guardians ought to underscore youngsters' advancement as opposed to zeroing in exclusively on evaluations and grades. Learning makes time and each stride in the process ought to be compensated, particularly at beginning phases when students no doubt will encounter disappointment.

    Academic Stress Is Hindrance:

    Academic pressure and stress are the biggest hindrances in the way of success and good performance. In recent studies, academic pressure is found as the biggest reason for stress and anxiety in students. The anxiety and stress make the student’s performance poor.

    Learning Skills:

    To lessening the academic pressure the educational institutes must teach students some necessary skills that can help them in academics. For example, students are mostly failed in assignments because they were unable to submit their assignments on time. So if students are taught time management skills it will solve the problem of late assignment submission. Some students lack organization skills and that affects their performance. So making, they learn organizational skills will help them to improve their performance.

    Using Online Resources:

    When traditional methods of teaching and learning are followed in the classroom they limit the learning and put more academic pressure on students. Teachers and educational institutions need to introduce online learning resources like videos, online quizzes, and tutorials.

    Improving Teacher-Student Relationship:

    Teachers need to build and improve the relationship with their students. It involves supporting them, addressing their collective and individual problems. Teachers need to actively engage each student in learning. Supporting students means that their problems and weaknesses must be resolved by collective efforts instead of punishing them for it. For improving teacher-student relations the communication barriers between teacher and students must be removed. There should be an open communication policy.

    Building and Improving Student to Student Relationship:

    Within classrooms, students need to interact with each other positively and healthily. In the classrooms where there is a competitive environment, the students' performances are better. The competition must be healthy. Similarly, students have to perform some activities in groups and teams. Improving communication within group is necessary. Expanding social mindfulness and distributed bonds a significant. Students' wellbeing and instructive results are impacted by the qualities of their friends, for example, how socially capable companion bunch individuals are or whether the companion bunch upholds support of social conduct.

    Improving Academic Culture:

    For improving, academic culture teachers need to get the parents involve in academics. Each student's weakness must be properly conveyed to the parents. Positive school culture is where your endeavors are converted into positive encounters for both staff and students. Achievement, bliss, and achievement are generally principal highlights of positive school culture. At the point, when your school has a positive culture, instructors are eager to work since they see the master plan, and students are in a superior position (intellectually and inwardly) to learn.

    Student Counseling:

    Educational institutes must help and support the students that are suffering from academic stress and anxiety problems. There should be regular counseling and mentoring of such students. Sessions about managing studies stress must be given to students periodically. There should be counseling provided to students for both academic purpose and career purposes.

    Sunday, 28 February 2021

    How to Make Yourself Confident for Presentation?

    Confident for Presentation
    Commit, a ton of your time, exploring and setting up your substance. It is imperative to do this well progress of time because you need to feel sure with what you know. Being sure of your realities and your data causes you to feel confident. Ensure your data is right and genuine and try not to twist reality because you are probably going to be discovered. It is additionally essential to invest the heft of your energy culminating the liberation of your presentation. Practice before individuals who you realize will give you fair criticism. According to assignment writing services, these can be companions, family or partners.

    Take a stab at recording one of your run-box and sincerely study what you see. Practice until you feel certain enough not to depend on your notes or slides. You need to address your audience, not reading off the slides. Attempt to customize your presentation. This should be possible by infusing some go along with yet possibly do as such if it is suitable. Make your presentation current by making it identifiable with a worldwide occasion. Get the audience required by posing inquiries. It very well might be useful to envision you are tending to companions or family however ensures you keep up the correct level of convention.


    Your presentation isn't about the substance. Your audience will be keen on how you convey it, so open non-verbal communication is pivotal. Use hand motions to show your point yet don't compel them. It is critical to set up eye to eye connection and grin to ooze receptiveness. Genuine confidence and energy will follow. Work on breathing procedures to expand blood and oxygen stream. It will likewise help in controlling any quakes. Take stops if you need to because this additionally permits a chance for the audience to have a consider what you are advising them. Talk with an energized tone yet don't surge what you are saying and consistently think before you talk. Ensure you can be heard with a reasonable tone.

    Discover those parts of your presentation where developments will give off an impression of being normal, and use them to feature key fixations or stress an idea. If you're posting different things, utilize your fingers to affirm them. If you're looking at something wide or expansive, stretch your arms and hands secluded. Your feelings will reflect your tendency toward the fact you're discussing and welcome the audience to attract with you on a more significant, energetic level. Dispose of filler words. Don’t use unnecessary words just for filling the space in your sentences. They make audience think that you are confuse, unprepared or nervous. Don’t use the words that you are unsure or don’t know how to pronounce them or what their right meaning is. Forgoing them is similarly maybe the most straightforward affinity to fix.

    The best thing to copy is the verbal movements of sports journalists. The ones who are at the most noteworthy purpose of their game rarely use filler words. Taking everything into account, prior to talking, they consider what they need to give immediately, and pass on their comments effectively and minimally. Set aside an effort to take pauses. A considerable number individuals use filler words because they're anxious about calm. An interference takes after the time period in a formed sentence. Stops are deciphered as expert articulation — in music and open discourse. A straightforward method to get familiar with the force of the respite is to pick a couple of expressions in your next presentation that expresses the key message you need to leave your audience with.


    Correlation can be ruinous in your confidence building measure. There are continually going to be individuals around you or those you appreciate that you may consider are 'better' than you. Yet, that is no motivation to surrender or feel down! Nobody else can talk the manner in which you do. Take in what you can from others and proceed onward. Try not to burn through your time and energy continually estimating and benchmarking yourself against others. One viable approach to do this is to screen your online media utilization. For instance, if taking a gander at your Facebook makes you analyze yourself, limit the amount you take a gander at it.

    Examination for the most part makes you center around what you don't have and what you are bad at. Try not to leave correlation alone an interruption. Nobody sounds, has a similar comical inclination or similar considerations to share like you. Draw and construct confidence from what makes you particularly you as presenter. It's the uncommon moderator who's dominated all standards of sure talking. Try not to be a picnic for yourself if it requires more investment than you anticipate. A portion of these strategies will a few run-throughs to get right, while others — like pacing — require long periods of work and progressed conveyance abilities to make certain about. Keep at it.